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In the past it was widely believed that pain and itching are transmitted by the same nerve pathway with the low intensity the 1 last update 27 May 2020 stimulation of unmyelinated polymodal C fibers resulting in sensation of pruritus whereas high intensity stimulation causing pain. In recent experiments however, stimulation of single unmyelinated C fibers led to the identification of two kinds of fibers. Stimulation of most of these fibers induces pain, whereas a small number of fibers provoke the sensation of itching. Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation, often accompanied by scratching. It may present due to a number of cutaneous diseases or internal disorders. Pruritus may be caused by some chemical substances as histamine, prostaglandins, proteases and substance P. This review describes the existence of pruritus in different internal disorders. It is quite important the reason of pruritus to be discovered, for the application of an adequate therapy.In the past it was widely believed that pain and itching are transmitted by the same nerve pathway with the low intensity stimulation of unmyelinated polymodal C fibers resulting in sensation of pruritus whereas high intensity stimulation causing pain. In recent experiments however, stimulation of single unmyelinated C fibers led to the identification of two kinds of fibers. Stimulation of most of these fibers induces pain, whereas a small number of fibers provoke the sensation of itching. Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation, often accompanied by scratching. It may present due to a number of cutaneous diseases or internal disorders. Pruritus may be caused by some chemical substances as histamine, prostaglandins, proteases and substance P. This review describes the existence of pruritus in different internal disorders. It is quite important the reason of pruritus to be discovered, for the application of an adequate therapy.
A simple definition of pruritus or itching is "". Of course the word "" means different things to different people1. Pruritus can be a physiological event as well, if the provoked scratching removes a potentially dangerous agent, or if it is due to some drugs or psychic diseases2.
Pruritus must be differentiated from tickling, burning, pain and touch. It must be underlined that pruritus is only a symptom of a number of disease and is generally a subjective sensation, sometimes accompanied by crusts, excoriations, hyperpigmentations, lichenification with thickening, pyodermia, increased skin creasing and burnished nails1, 2.
The intensity can be mild, moderate or severe with sleep disorders, discomfort and increased irritability, disturbance of daily activity or general stress. Pruritus may be acute or chronic, localized or generalized3, 4.
Heartburn Remedies Anti-Reflux Diet (☑ Heartburn Naturally) | Heartburn Remedies Other Natural Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for It has been a long time since the general belief that itching and pain are transmitted by the same nerve pathway, with low intensity stimulation of unmyelinated polymodal C fiber resulting in sensation of pruritus whereas high intensity stimulation causing pain. Now two kinds of fibers have been identified: most of these fibers produce pain, whereas a small number of them produce the sensation of itching upon stimulation. The following data are in favor of the concept that receptors for itching and pain are different: itching provokes scratching, while pain causes a withdrawal response; morphine relieves pain, but can cause pruritus; removal of the epidermis and upper dermis abolishes itching, but not pain; heating of skin to 41° C relieves itching, but not pain5, 6.
Pruritus is provoked or enhanced by a number of chemical substances such as histamine, prostaglandins, proteases, cytokines, neuropeptides, including substance P, and bile salts. Some of the substances act directly on the free nerve ending, while others act indirectly through mastocytes or other cells7.
The itch impulse is transmitted from peripheral nerves to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, across the cord via the anterior commissure, and ascending along the spinothalamic tract to the laminar nuclei of the contralateral thalamus. Thalamocortical tracts of tertiary neurons are believed to relay the impulse through the integrating reticular activating system of the thalamus to several areas of the cerebral cortex. Factors that are believed to enhance the sensation of pruritus include dryness of the epidermis and dermis, anoxia of tissues, dilation of the capillaries, irritating stimuli, and psychological responses5, 7.
The motor response of scratching follows the itching. Scratching is modulated at the corticothalamic center as a spinal reflex. After scratching, pruritus may be relieved for 15 to 30 minutes. The mechanism of this relieve by scratching is unknown. Scratching probably generates sensory impulses that disrupt circuits in some areas of the spinal cord. Scratching may enhance the sensation of itching, creating a itching-scratching-itching cycle. Other physical stimuli such as heat, cold, vibration, and ultraviolet radiation diminish itching and increase the release of proteolytic enzymes, blocking the itch-scratch-itch chain6–8. It is thought that spinal modulation of afferent stimuli and central mechanisms may play a role in the relief of itch5, 6 Pathogenesis of pruritus associated with underlying disease states are varied. Malignant, hepatic, and renal diseases, are thought to produce itching by circulating toxic substances. Released from circulating basophils histamine and leukopeptidase - from white blood cells - may trigger pruritus associated with lymphomas and leukemias. Higher kininogen in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, release of histamine or bradykinin precursors from solid tumors, and serotonin in carcinoid may all be the agents, causing pruritus. People receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, irradiation, and/or biologic response modifiers for treatment of malignancy are likely to experience pruritus. This same population is quite likely to be exposed to many of the other etiologic factors relating to pruritus ranging from nutritionally related xerosis (dry skin) to radiation desquamation, chemotherapy and biologic agent–induced side effects, antibiotic reactions, and other drug sensitivities.
Pruritus of variety of skin diseases in which the mediators act on free nerve endings.
Pruritus in internal diseases.
Idiopathic pruritus – when no cause can be identified.
This review points on pruritus, associated with some internal diseases. The most frequent internal diseases and borderline states, causing pruritus are in Table 1.
Pruritus is a frequent manifestation in patients with liver diseases and intra- or post- hepatic cholestasis10. Primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, B and C viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, carcinoma of bile ducts, alcoholic cirrhosis are among the hepatic disorders with pruritus. The pathogenesis of cholestatic pruritus is still poorly understood: the precise substance, causing the pruritus is not known. Some authors suggest that pruritus is caused by the bile acids in the blood (cholemia) or skin10, but the correlation between the skin concentration of bile salts and intensity of pruritus is quite poor. The itching in patients with cholemic pruritus can be positively influenced by treatment with phototherapy, cholestyramine, plasmapheresis which lower or remove the unknown incriminated circulating substances; antihistamines can be used as adjuvants. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been used with a good therapeutic result; serotonin subtype-3-receptor antagonists ondansetron, given intravenously, have been helpful in the treatment of cholestatic pruritus as well11.
Pruritus in uremia is a common and often intolerable symptom of chronic renal insufficiency. It presents in about 15 % of the cases12, mostly with skin lesions due to scratching. Pruritus is even more common in about 50-90% of patients undergoing dialysis and can be localized or generalized13. Interestingly, pruritus is not present in acute renal failure.
Similarly to most internal diseases itching, the pathogenesis of uremic pruritus, is poorly understood. The cause is probably multifactorial. Iron deficiency, release of histamine, disturbances of calcium-phosphate metabolism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, proliferation of mast cells in the skin, hypervitaminosis A, allergic reactions to the material used for dialysis, affection of motor, sensory and autonomic nerves, endogenous opioids may be considered as possible causative agents14. Treatment of renal pruritus is based on the use of ultraviolet therapy, emollients, activated charcoal, cholestyramine, and phosphate binding agents. Sometimes parathyroidectomy is necessary for reduction of itching. Evidence based medicine and practicing do not indicate that histamine concentration is implicated in uremic pruritus. Consequently, antihistamines are not beneficial for the treatment of renal pruritus15, 16. A useful recommendation for patients on dialysis is to improve the intensity and efficiency of dialysis by removing from the blood the harmful substances, that may induce itching and by using non-complement-activating membranes for hemodialysis. Pruritus disappears or improves significantly after transplantation17, 18.
A number of hematological diseases are associated with pruritus.
Heartburn Remedies To Avoid (🔥 Why) | Heartburn Remedies Unexpected Foodshow to Heartburn Remedies for In polycythemia vera, where overproduction of all three hematopoietic cell lines occurs, itching may appear following contact with water or after a hot bath. It is of note that aquagenic pruritus may precede the development of polycythemia vera by several years19. Itching may be so severe that patients refuse to bathe. It is caused by release of histamine20 and other substances from an increased number of blood basophils; antihistamines do not relieve from this symptom, and currently the most effective method to treat this kind of pruritus is the use of salicylates, photochemotherapy or interferon-a21.
Iron deficiency is often regarded as a cause for pruritus, even in the absence of anemia. Iron loading abolishes the symptom.
In older patients the cause of pruritus can be a malignant tumour, that may also lead to anemia.
Pruritus may also be present in patients with hemochromatosis where the levels of iron in blood and tissues are elevated22.
About 30% of the patients with Hodgkin’s disease feel itchy. Pruritus can be an early or presenting complaint. It can be very severe, and this may imply a worse prognosis. Hodgkin’s pruritus improves after radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Pruritus is uncommon presentation of chronic leukemia, myelomatosis and lymphosarcoma. It is more often in lymphatic than in granulocytic forms.
Pruritus has also been described in patients with host reactions after bone marrow transplantation.
Heartburn Remedies Cure Your Acid Reflux (🔥 Treatment For) | Heartburn Remedies Warningshow to Heartburn Remedies for Pruritus is present occasionally in diabetics. Itch may be generalized or more frequently localized on the scalp, the genitalia or the perianal area. It may be attributed to a concomitant candidiasis or, more often, to poor control of diabetes, sometimes expressed as elevated glycosylated hemoglobin blood levels23. The pruritus in diabetes mellitus may also be linked to neuropathy, dry skin, and drug administration. Treatment consists in the control of diabetes, and the use of antifungal agents. Topical capsaicin may be helpful in some cases of localized pruritus.
Pruritus-associated hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism was known from the beginning of the 20th century24. Its mechanism is unclear. An increase in blood flow and consequently in skin temperature may be a causative factor in hyperthyroidism. Myxoedema-associated pruritus is rare and may be related to the dry skin. Pruritus and even chronic urticaria may be associated with the presence of thyroid autoimmunity and antibodies against several thyroid components such as are thyreoglobulin, and TSH receptor. Levothyroxin is the appropriate treatment in such cases.
Abnormal parathyroid gland activity may also cause pruritus. Secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal diseases may be an additional provocative factor in uremic itch. Parathyroid hormone however, as intradermal injection, failed to trigger itch25. Dry skin and cutaneous candidosis probably cause pruritus in patients with primary hypoparathyreoidism26.
Hormonal deficit in women in the postmenopausal period the 1 last update 27 May 2020 may provoke vulvar pruritus27.Hormonal deficit in women in the postmenopausal period may provoke vulvar pruritus27.
Pruritus and malignancy
Carcinoma of the lung, stomach, colon, prostate, breast and pancreatic rarely have been associated with generalized pruritus28, 29. Treatment consists in surgical removal of the tumor and, in inoperable cases in the use of serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, or of serotonin antagonists.
Heartburn Remedies GERD Diet (☑ 7 Natural GERD) | Heartburn Remedies 6 Ways To Get Relief Duringhow to Heartburn Remedies for Pruritus is an important symptom in patients with different forms of mastocytosis: solitary mastocytoma, urticaria pigmentosa, teleangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, systemic mastocytosis30. Mast cells in human skin are mostly of the tryptase-containing type, while in the alveoli and gastrointestinal mucosa they are of the chymase-containing type. This distinction can help to differentiate the skin mastocytoses from the systemic ones31, 32. In carcinoid syndrome pruritus is sometimes associated with flushing. The pruritus is elicited by serotonin, produced in the enterochromaphine cells of the tumor33. Treatment with antiserotonin drugs alleviates the symptom.
Some authors have pointed the frequent association of pruritus with brain tumors; nasal pruritus was present in about half of the cases34. The association of pruritus with tumors is not always understood. It may be triggered by immunological mechanisms, toxic metabolites, iron deficiency, and dry skin. Eradication of the tumor can diminish or abolish itch; antihistamines do not relieve it.
In patients with MEN syndrome (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasms) a unilateral pruritus over the scapular region, linked to deposition of amyloid can be present35.
Neurogenic the 1 last update 27 May 2020 pruritusNeurogenic pruritus
Brain diseases like stroke, sclerosis multiplex, brain tumors, abscesses, may sometimes induce severe generalized or localized pruritus38, 39. This itching occurs in paroxysms and may be unilateral. The treatment with amitriptyline, which is blocking the uptake of serotonin, increases the conduction in the medulla, and alleviates itch.
Tabes may give rise to segmental pruritus40.
Multiple sclerosis is also accompanied the 1 last update 27 May 2020 by pruritus in some cases.Multiple sclerosis is also accompanied by pruritus in some cases.
Patients with neuropathies complain rather of paresthesias than of pruritus.
Emotional stress and psychological trauma, anxiety, depression and psychoses intensify all forms of pruritus. Neurosis may be another cause. In adults with generalized pruritus a 10% is triggered by psychological causes40.
Heartburn Remedies Causes (⭐️ Help Relieve) | Heartburn Remedies Foods That Fight Hearbturnhow to Heartburn Remedies for A particular form is the so called "" or "". It appears typically in elderly people, usually women. They often complain of itching and believe that they are infested with lice, ants, flies or some other parasites, and scratch the skin to eradicate them41, 42. Therapy with antipsychotic drugs seems to be effective.
Cutaneous and systemic causes of itching have to be excluded before a diagnosis of psychogenic or psychiatric pruritus be made.
Pruritus can be a side effect of a variety of drugs. This may be the result of a direct action on skin structures, or indirect through iatrogenic hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Subclinical sensitivity to any drug may cause pruritus. Morphine, opioids, angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors, analgetics, vitamin A, contrast media, gold, chloroquine and sulfonamides are among the drugs that may induce pruritus43. The implicated drugs remain for a long time in the dermal macrophages44. The use of antihistamines is not helpful.
Pruritus therapy can be topical or systemic, symptomatic and causal. In many cases it is necessary to avoid excessive bathing, irritative fabrics, vasodilatation caused by alcohol, hot liquids or foods and stress45. In some cases, patients can use antihistamines the 1 last update 27 May 2020 and / or sedating drugs36, 45. Tricyclic antidepressants are also useful. The classic sedating antihistamines diphenhydramin and clorpheniramin induce side effects like sedation, slowing the motor skill and somnolence11, 18. Phototherapy, cholestyramine, capsaicine can be used successfully in some cases21, 36. The most important tool for treatment of the pruritus in internal diseases is the specific treatment of the concrete internal disease, which should not be underestimated9–11, 45.Pruritus therapy can be topical or systemic, symptomatic and causal. In many cases it is necessary to avoid excessive bathing, irritative fabrics, vasodilatation caused by alcohol, hot liquids or foods and stress45. In some cases, patients can use antihistamines and / or sedating drugs36, 45. Tricyclic antidepressants are also useful. The classic sedating antihistamines diphenhydramin and clorpheniramin induce side effects like sedation, slowing the motor skill and somnolence11, 18. Phototherapy, cholestyramine, capsaicine can be used successfully in some cases21, 36. The most important tool for treatment of the pruritus in internal diseases is the specific treatment of the concrete internal disease, which should not be underestimated9–11, 45.
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